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Marzano's CLI

 

Common Language of Instrucion

based on Marzano’s

“The Art and Science of Teaching”

 

#1: What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success?

 

1. What do I typically do to provide clear learning goals and scales (rubrics)?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher provides a clearly stated learning goal accompanied by a scale or rubric that describes levels of performance relative to the learning goal.

Teacher has a learning goal posted so that all students can see it

The learning goal is a clear statement of knowledge or information as opposed to an activity or assignment

Teacher makes reference to the learning goal throughout the lesson

Teacher has a scale or rubric that relates to the learning goal posted so that all students can see it

Teacher makes reference to the scale or rubric throughout the lesson

Student Evidence

When asked, students can explain the learning goal for the lesson

When asked, students can explain how their current activities relate to the learning goal

When asked, students can explain the meaning of the levels of performance articulated in the scale or rubric

 

2. What do I typically do to track student progress?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher facilitates tracking of student progress on one or more learning goals using a formative approach to assessment.

Teacher helps students track their individual progress on the learning goal

Teacher assigns scores using a scale or rubric that depicts student status relative to the learning goal

Teacher uses formal and informal means to assign scores to students

Teacher charts the progress of the entire class on the learning goal

Student Evidence

When asked, students can describe their status relative to the learning goal using the scale or rubric

Students systematically update their status on the learning goal

 

3. What do I typically do to celebrate success?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher provides students with recognition of their current status and their knowledge gain relative to the learning goal.

Teacher acknowledges students who have achieved a certain score on the scale or rubric

Teacher acknowledges students who have made gains in their knowledge and skill relative to the learning goal

Teacher acknowledges and celebrates the final status and progress of the entire class

Teacher uses a variety of ways to celebrate success

• Show of hands

• Certification of success

• Parent notification

• Round of applause

Student Evidence

Students show signs of pride regarding their accomplishments in the class

When asked, students say they want to continue to make progress

 

#2: What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge?

1. What do I typically do to identify critical information?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher identifies a lesson or part of a lesson as involving important information to which students should pay particular attention.

Teacher begins the lesson by explaining why upcoming content is important

Teacher tells students to get ready for some important information

Teacher cues the importance of upcoming information in some indirect fashion

• Tone of voice

• Body position

• Level of excitement

Student Evidence

When asked, students can describe the level of importance of the information addressed in class

When asked, students can explain why the content is important to pay attention to

Students visibly adjust their level of engagement

 

2. What do I typically do to organize students to interact with new knowledge?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher organizes students into small groups to facilitate the processing of new information.

Teacher has established routines for student grouping and student interaction in groups

Teacher organizes students into ad hoc groups for the lesson

• Dyads

• Triads

• Small groups up to about 5

Student Evidence

Students move to groups in an orderly fashion

Students appear to understand expectations about appropriate behavior in groups

• Respect opinions of others

• Add their perspective to discussions

• Ask and answer questions

 

3. What do I typically do to preview new content?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher engages students in activities that help them link what they already know to the new content about to be addressed and facilitates these linkages.

Teacher uses preview question before reading

Teacher uses K-W-L strategy or variation of it

Teacher asks or reminds students what they already know about the topic

Teacher provides an advance organizer

• Outline

• Graphic organizer

Teacher has students brainstorm

Teacher uses anticipation guide

Teacher uses motivational hook/launching activity

• Anecdotes

• Short selection from video

Teacher uses word splash activity to connect vocabulary to upcoming content

When necessary, the teacher reteaches basic information or skills

Student Evidence

When asked, student can explain linkages with prior knowledge

When asked, students make predictions about upcoming content

When asked, students can provide a purpose for what they are about to learn

Students actively engage in previewing activities

 

4. What do I typically do to chunk content into “digestible bites”?

Teacher Evidence

Based on student needs, the teacher breaks the content into small chunks (i.e., digestible bites) of information that can be easily processed by students.

Teacher stops at strategic points in a verbal presentation

While playing a video tape, the teacher turns the tape off at key junctures

While providing a demonstration, the teacher stops at strategic points

While students are reading information or stories orally as a class, the teacher stops at strategic points

Student Evidence

When asked, students can explain why the teacher is stopping at various points

Students appear to know what is expected of them when the teacher stops at strategic points

  

5. What do I typically do to help students process new information?

Teacher Evidence

During breaks in the presentation of content, the teacher engages students in actively processing new information.

Teacher has group members summarize new information

Teacher employs formal group processing strategies

• Jigsaw

• Reciprocal Teaching

• Concept attainment

Student Evidence

When asked, students can explain what they have just learned

Students volunteer predictions

Students voluntarily ask clarification questions

Groups are actively discussing the content

Group members ask each other and answer questions about the information

• Group members make predictions about what they expect next

 

6. What do I typically do to help students elaborate on new information?  

Teacher Evidence

The teacher asks questions or engages students in activities that require elaborative inferences that go beyond what was explicitly taught.

Teacher asks explicit questions that require students to make elaborative inferences about the content

Teacher asks students to explain and defend their inferences

Teacher presents situations or problems that require inferences

Student Evidence

Students volunteer answers to inferential questions

Students provide explanations and “proofs” for inferences

 

7. What do I typically do to help students record and represent knowledge?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher engages students in activities that help them record their understanding of new content in linguistic ways and/or represent the content in nonlinguistic ways.

Teacher asks students to summarize the information they have learned

Teacher asks students to generate notes that identify critical information in the content

Teacher asks students to create nonlinguistic representations for new content

• Graphic organizers

• Pictures

• Pictographs

• Flow charts

Teacher asks students to create mnemonics that organize the content

Student Evidence

Students’ summaries and notes include critical content

Students’ nonlinguistic representations include critical content

When asked, students can explain main points of the lesson

 

8. What do I typically do to help students reflect on their learning?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher engages students in activities that help them reflect on their learning and the learning process.

Teacher asks students to state or record what they are clear about and what they are confused about

Teacher asks students to state or record how hard they tried

Teacher asks students to state or record what they might have done to enhance their learning

Student Evidence

When asked, students can explain what they are clear about and what they are confused about

When asked, students can describe how hard they tried

When asked, students can explain what they could have done to enhance their learning

 

 

#3: What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?

 

9. What do I typically do to review content?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher engages students in a brief review of content that highlights the critical information.

Teacher begins the lesson with a brief review of content

Teacher uses specific strategies to review information

• Summary

• Problem that must be solved using previous information

• Questions that require a review of content

• Demonstration

• Brief practice test or exercise

When necessary, the teacher reteaches basic information or skills

Student Evidence

When asked, students can describe the previous content on which new lesson is based

Student responses to class activities indicate that they recall previous content

 

10. What do I typically do to organize students to practice and deepen knowledge?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher uses grouping in ways that facilitate practicing and deepening knowledge.

Teacher organizes students into groups with the expressed idea of deepening their knowledge of informational content

Teacher organizes students into groups with the expressed idea of practicing a skill, strategy, or process

Student Evidence

When asked, students explain how the group work supports their learning

While in groups, students interact in explicit ways to deepen their knowledge of informational content or practice a skill, strategy, or process

• Asking each other questions

• Obtaining feedback from their peers

 

11. What do I typically do to use homework?

Teacher Evidence

When appropriate (as opposed to routinely), the teacher designs homework to deepen students’ knowledge of informational content or practice a skill, strategy, or process.

Teacher communicates a clear purpose for homework

Teacher extends an activity that was begun in class to provide students with more time

Teacher assigns a well-crafted homework assignment that allows students to practice and deepen their knowledge independently

Student Evidence

When asked, students can describe how the homework assignment will deepen their understanding of informational content or help them practice a skill, strategy, or process

Students ask clarifying questions of the homework that help them understand its purpose

 

12. What do I typically do to help students examine similarities and differences

Teacher Evidence

When the content is informational, the teacher helps students deepen their knowledge by examining similarities and differences.

Teacher engages students in activities that require students to examine similarities and differences between content

• Comparison activities

• Classifying activities

• Analogy activities

• Metaphor activities

Teacher facilitates the use of these activities to help students deepen their understanding of content

• Ask students to summarize what they have learned from the activity

• Ask students to explain how the activity has added to their understanding

Student Evidence

Student artifacts indicate that their knowledge has been extended as a result of the activity

When asked about the activity, student responses indicate that they have deepened theirunderstanding

When asked, students can explain similarities and differences

Student artifacts indicate that they can identify similarities and differences

 

13. What do I typically do to help students examine errors in reasoning?

Teacher Evidence

When content is informational, the teacher helps students deepen their knowledge by examining their own reasoning or the logic of the information as presented to them.

Teacher asks students to examine information for errors or informal fallacies

• Faulty logic

• Attacks

• Weak reference

• Misinformation

Teacher asks students to examine the strength of support presented for a claim

• Statement of a clear claim

• Evidence for the claim presented

• Qualifiers presented showing exceptions to the claim

Student Evidence

When asked, students can describe errors or informal fallacies in information

When asked, students can explain the overall structure of an argument presented to support a claim

Student artifacts indicate that they can identify errors in reasoning

 

14. What do I typically do to help students practice skills, strategies, and processes

Teacher Evidence

When the content involves a skill, strategy, or process, the teacher engages students in practice activities that help them develop fluency.

Teacher engages students in massed and distributed practice activities that are appropriate to their current ability to execute a skill, strategy, or process

• Guided practice if students cannot perform the skill, strategy, or process independently

• Independent practice if students can perform the skill, strategy, or process independently

Student Evidence

Students perform the skill, strategy, or process with increased confidence

Students perform the skill, strategy, or process with increased competence

 

15. What do I typically do to help students revise knowledge?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher engages students in revision of previous knowledge about content addressed in previous lessons.

Teacher asks students to examine previous entries in their academic notebooks or notes

Teacher engages the whole class in an examination of how the current lesson changed perceptions and understandings of previous content

Teacher has students explain how their understanding has changed

Student Evidence

Students make corrections to information previously recorded about content.

When asked, students can explain previous errors or misconceptions they had about content

 

#4: What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge?

 

16. What do I typically do to organize students for cognitively complex tasks?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher organizes the class in such a way as to facilitate students working on complex tasks that require them to generate and test hypotheses.

Teacher establishes the need to generate and test hypotheses

Teacher organizes students into groups to generate and test hypotheses

Student Evidence

When asked, students describe the importance of generating and testing hypotheses about content

When asked, students explain how groups support their learning

Students use group activities to help them generate and test hypotheses

 

17. What do I typically do to engage students in cognitively complex tasks involving hypothesis generation and testing?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher engages students in complex tasks (e.g., decision making, problem solving, experimental inquiry, investigation) that require them to generate and test hypotheses.

Teacher engages students with an explicit decision making, problem solving, experimental inquiry, or investigation task that requires them to generate and test hypotheses

Teacher facilitates students generating their own individual or group task that requires them to generate and test hypotheses

Student Evidence

Students are clearly working on tasks that require them to generate and test hypotheses

When asked, students can explain the hypothesis they are testing

When asked, students can explain whether their hypothesis was confirmed or disconfirmed

Student artifacts indicate that they can engage in decision making, problem solving, experiential inquiry, or investigation

 

18. What do I typically do to provide resources and guidance

Teacher Evidence

The teacher acts as resource provider and guide as students engage in cognitively complex tasks.

Teacher makes himself/herself available to students who need guidance or resources

• Circulates around the room

• Provides easy access to himself/herself

Teacher interacts with students during the class to determine their needs for hypothesis generating and testing tasks

Teacher volunteers resources and guidance as needed by the entire class, groups of students, or individual students

Student Evidence

Students seek out the teacher for advice and guidance regarding hypothesis generation and testing tasks

When asked, students can explain how the teacher provides assistance and guidance in hypothesis generation and testing tasks

 

#5: What will I do to engage students?

 

1. What do I typically do to notice when students are not engaged?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher scans the room making note of when students are not engaged and takes overt action.

Teacher notices when specific students or groups of students are not engaged

Teacher notices when the energy level in the room is low

Teacher takes action to re-engage students

Student Evidence

Students appear aware of the fact that the teacher is taking note of their level of engagement

Students try to increase their level of engagement when prompted

When asked, students explain that the teacher expects high levels of engagement

 

2. What do I typically do to use academic games?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher uses academic games and inconsequential competition to maintain student engagement.

Teacher uses structured game formats such as Jeopardy, Family Feud, etc.

Teacher develops impromptu games such as making a game out of which answer might be correct for a given question

Teacher uses friendly competition along with classroom games

Student Evidence

Students engage in the games with some enthusiasm

When asked, students can explain how the games keep their interest and help them learn or remember content

 

3. What do I typically do to manage response rates?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher uses response rate techniques to maintain student engagement in questions.

Teacher uses wait time

Teacher uses response cards

Teacher has students use hand signals to respond to questions

Teacher uses choral response

Teacher uses technology to keep track of students’ responses

Teacher uses response chaining

Student Evidence

Multiple students or the entire class responds to questions posed by the teacher

When asked, students can describe their thinking about specific questions posed by the teacher

 

4. What do I typically do to use physical movement?

Teacher Evidence

Teacher has students stand up and stretch or do related activities when their energy is low

Teacher uses activities that require students to physically move to respond to questions

• Vote with your feet

• Corners activity

Teacher has students physically act out or model content to increase energy and engagement

Teacher uses “give-one-get-one” activities that require students to move about the room

Student Evidence

Students engage in the physical activities designed by the teacher

When asked, students can explain how the physical movement keeps their interest and helps them learn

 

5. What do I typically do to maintain a lively pace?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher uses pacing techniques to maintain students’ engagement.

Teacher employs crisp transitions from one activity to another

Teacher alters pace appropriately (i.e., speeds up and slows down)

Student Evidence

Students quickly adapt to transitions and re-engage when a new activity is begun

When asked about the pace of the class, students describe it as not too fast or not too slow

 

6. What do I typically do to demonstrate intensity and enthusiasm?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher demonstrates intensity and enthusiasm for the content in a variety of ways.

Teacher describes personal experiences that relate to the content

Teacher signals excitement for content by:

• Physical gestures

• Voice tone

• Dramatization of information

Teacher overtly adjusts energy level

Student Evidence

When asked, students say that the teacher “likes the content” and “likes teaching”

Students’ attention levels increase when the teacher demonstrates enthusiasm and intensity for the content

 

7. What do I typically do to use friendly controversy?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher uses friendly controversy techniques to maintain student engagement.

Teacher structures mini-debates about the content

Teacher has students examine multiple perspectives and opinions about the content

Teacher elicits different opinions on content from members of the class

Student Evidence

Students engage in friendly controversy activities with enhanced engagement

When asked, students describe friendly controversy activities as “stimulating,” “fun,” and so on

When asked, students explain how a friendly controversy activity helped them better understand the content

 

8. What do I typically do to provide opportunities for students to talk about themselves?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher provides students with opportunities to relate what is being addressed in class to their personal interests.

Teacher is aware of student interests and makes connections between these interests and class content

Teacher structures activities that ask students to make connections between the content and their personal interests

When students are explaining how content relates to their personal interests, the teacher appears encouraging and interested

Student Evidence

Students engage in activities that require them to make connections between their personal interests and the content

When asked, students explain how making connections between content and their personal interests engages them and helps them better understand the content

 

9. What do I typically do to present unusual or intriguing information?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher uses unusual or intriguing information about the content in a manner that enhances student engagement. 

Teacher systematically provides interesting facts and details about the content

Teacher encourages students to identify interesting information about the content

Teacher engages students in activities like “Believe it or not” about the content

Teacher uses guest speakers to provide unusual information about the content

Teacher tells stories that are related to the content

Student Evidence

Students’ attention increases when unusual information is presented about the content

When asked, students explain how the unusual information makes them more interested in the content

 

 #6: What will I do to establish and maintain classroom rules and procedures?

 

4. What do I typically do to establish and maintain classroom rules and procedures?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher reviews expectations regarding rules and procedures to ensure their effective execution.

Teacher involves students in designing classroom routines

Teacher uses classroom meetings to review and process rules and procedures

Teacher reminds students of rules and procedures

Teacher asks students to restate or explain rules and procedures

Teacher provides cues or signals when a rule or procedure should be used

Student Evidence

Students follow clear routines during class

When asked, students can describe established rules and procedures

When asked, students describe the classroom as an orderly place

Students recognize cues and signals by the teacher

Students regulate their own behavior

 

5. What do I typically do to organize the physical layout of the classroom?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher organizes the physical layout of the classroom to facilitate movement and focus on learning.

The physical layout of the classroom has clear traffic patterns

The physical layout of the classroom provides easy access to material and centers

The classroom is decorated in a way that enhances student learning:

Bulletin boards relate to current content

Students’ work is displayed

Student Evidence

Students move easily about the classroom

Students make use of materials and learning centers

Students attend to examples of their work that are displayed

Students attend to information on the bulletin boards

Students can easily focus on instruction 

 

#7: What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence or lack of adherence to rules and procedures?

 

10. What do I typically do to demonstrate “withitness”?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher uses behaviors associated with “withitness” to maintain adherence to rules and procedures.

Teacher physically occupies all quadrants of the room

Teacher scans the entire room making eye contact with all students

Teacher recognizes potential sources of disruption and deals with them immediately

Teacher proactively addresses inflammatory situations

Student Evidence

Students recognize that the teacher is aware of their behavior

When asked, students describe the teacher as “aware of what is going on” or “has eyes on the back of his/her head”

 

11. What do I typically do to apply consequences for lack of adherence to rules and procedures? 

Teacher Evidence

The teacher applies consequences for not following rules and procedures consistently and fairly.

Teacher provides nonverbal signals when students’ behavior is not appropriate

• Eye contact

• Proximity

• Tap on the desk

• Shaking head, no

Teacher provides verbal signals when students’ behavior is not appropriate

• Tells students to stop

• Tells students that their behavior is in violation of a rule or procedure

Teacher uses group contingency consequences when appropriate (i.e., whole group must demonstrate a specific behavior)

Teacher involves the home when appropriate (i.e., makes a call home to parents to help extinguish inappropriate behavior)

Teacher uses direct cost consequences when appropriate (e.g., student must fix something he or she has broken)

Student Evidence

Students cease inappropriate behavior when signaled by the teacher

Students accept consequences as part of the way class is conducted

When asked, students describe the teacher as fair in application of rules

 

12. What do I typically do to acknowledge adherence to rules and procedures?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher consistently and fairly acknowledges adherence to rules and procedures.

Teacher provides nonverbal signals that a rule or procedure has been followed:

• Smile

• Nod of head

• High Five

Teacher gives verbal cues that a rule or procedure has been followed:

• Thanks students for following a rule or procedure

• Describes student behaviors that adhere to rule or procedure

Teacher notifies the home when a rule or procedure has been followed

Teacher uses tangible recognition when a rule or procedure has been followed:

• Certificate of merit

• Token economies

Student Evidence

Students appear appreciative of the teacher acknowledging their positive behavior

When asked, students describe teacher as appreciative of their good behavior

The number of students adhering to rules and procedures increases

 

#8: What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students?

 

13. What do I typically do to understand students’ interests and background?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher uses students’ interests and background to produce a climate of acceptance and community.

Teacher has side discussions with students about events in their lives

Teacher has discussions with students about topics in which they are interested

Teacher builds student interests into lessons

Student Evidence

When asked, students describe the teacher as someone who knows them and/or is interested in them

Students respond when teacher demonstrates understanding of their interests and background

When asked, students say they feel accepted

 

14. What do I typically do to use verbal and nonverbal behaviors that indicate affection for students?

Teacher Evidence

When appropriate, the teacher uses verbal and nonverbal behavior that indicates caring for students.

Teacher compliments students regarding academic and personal accomplishments

Teacher engages in informal conversations with students that are not related to academics

Teacher uses humor with students when appropriate

Teacher smiles, nods, etc. at students when appropriate

Teacher puts hand on students’ shoulders when appropriate

Student Evidence

When asked, students describe teacher as someone who cares for them

Students respond to teacher’s verbal interactions

Students respond to teacher’s nonverbal interactions

 

15. What do I typically do to display objectivity and control?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher behaves in an objective and controlled manner.

Teacher does not exhibit extremes in positive or negative emotions

Teacher addresses inflammatory issues and events in a calm and controlled manner

Teacher interacts with all students in the same calm and controlled fashion

Teacher does not demonstrate personal offense at student misbehavior

Student Evidence

Students are settled by the teacher’s calm demeanor

When asked, the students describe the teacher as in control of himself/herself and in control of the class

When asked, students say that the teacher does not hold grudges or take things personally

 

#9: What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students?

 

16. What do I typically do to demonstrate value and respect for low expectancy students?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher exhibits behaviors that demonstrate value and respect for low expectancy students.

When asked, the teacher can identify the students for whom there have been low expectations and the various ways in which these students have been treated differently from high expectancy students in the past

The teacher provides low expectancy students with nonverbal indications that they are valued and respected:

• Makes eye contact

• Smiles

• Makes appropriate physical contact

The teacher provides low expectancy students with verbal indications that they are valued and respected:

• Playful dialogue

• Addressing students in a manner they view as respectful

Teacher does not allow negative comments about low expectancy students

Student Evidence

When asked, students say that the teacher cares for all students

Students treat each other with respect

 

17. What do I typically do to ask questions of low expectancy students?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher asks questions of low expectancy students with the same frequency and depth as with high expectancy students.

Teacher makes sure low expectancy students’ questions are answered at the same rate as high expectancy students’ questions

Teacher makes sure low expectancy students are asked challenging questions at the same rate as high expectancy students

Student Evidence

When asked, students say the teacher expects everyone to participate

When asked, students say the teacher asks difficult questions of every student

 

18. What do I typically do to probe incorrect answers with low expectancy students?

Teacher Evidence

The teacher probes incorrect answers of low expectancy students in the same manner as he/she does with high expectancy students.

Teacher asks low expectancy students to further explain their answers when they are incorrect

Teacher rephrases questions for low expectancy students when they provide an incorrect answer

Teacher breaks a question into smaller and simpler parts when a low expectancy student answers a question incorrectly

When low expectancy students demonstrate frustration, the teacher allows them to collect their thoughts but goes back to them at a later point in time

Student Evidence

When asked, students say that the teacher won’t “let you off the hook”

When asked, students say that the teacher “won’t give up on you”

When asked, students say the teacher helps them answer questions successfully

Common Lang. of Instruct. Locker

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